Tuesday, 11 March 2014

Oh!!! No!!! It's Wormmmss... (Censored)

Today I like to share some knowledge that I think most owners well familiar with. But, I'm not sure whether do the owners know that different worms may cause different clinical signs (symptoms) to our pets. I'll also will discuss about the route of infection and how we can prevent it. generally this topics can be applied for both cats and dogs.

There are four common worms that inhabits in our pet's gastrointestinal system. (more specifically is in the intestines). The four common types of worms are:

  • Tapeworms (Cestodes)
  • Roundworms
  • Hookworms
  • Whipsworms
The morphology (rupa bentuk) describe the name of the worm. 

Roundworms (Toxocara sp.)
Hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum)

Hookworms on the mucosa of intestine

Tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum)

  • Platyhelmiths (Cestoda)
  • It is also known as flatworm due to it segmented, flattened dorsoventrally
  • This type of worms are hermaphrodite (they have both male and female organs).
More specifically, they are two types of worms that common in Malaysia's cat.
  1. Dipylidium caninum
  2. Taenia taeniformis
D. caninum is the most common tapeworn in cats (less common in dogs).

Flea is the intermediate host for this worm. (Can u see how they correlate with each other -> so please never underestimate what flea can harm our pets). 

Flea (Ctenocephalides felis)
Zoonotic risk: Accidentally ingested the infected flea can transmit the worms to human.
Butt stratching is common sign observed in our pets. Reasons behind this is:

The proglottis (segment of the tapeworms) is actively crawls from anus, hence causing peranal discomfort.

Taenia taeniformis is less common tapeworms in cats. The intermediate host is mice. That's why it is highly recommended to de-worm our pets regularly especially if our pets is outdoor.

Infestation of Roundworms: Toxocariasis

There are four (4) routes of entry into the host (cat/dog)
It can be direct or indirectly:

1. Direct ingestion of developed eggs (containing the L2-the larva)
2. Indirectly:

  • via ingestion of milk (less than 4 months old kitten)--> ingested and develop into adult
  • prenatal infection (from dam to fetus) via placenta/uterus
  • ingestion of paratenic host such as rodents

  • Hookworms is transmitted through:
  1. via ingestion of the third-stage larvae from a contaminated environment
  2. larval penetration of the skin, 
  3. ingestion of other vertebrate hosts with infective larvae in their tissues. Dogs and cats may also become infected by eating cockroaches that contain infective larvae.
  4. Transmammary transmission of larvae from the bitch to pups
  • Adult worms may live for 4 to 24 months in the small intestine.

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